Brain-regions central nervous system

Central nervous system function

What is the Central Nervous System?

The central nervous system (CNS) is a substantial body part that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The skull (cranial cavity) protects the brain, and the spinal cord travels from the back part of the brain down to the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back.

Meninges: It is a protective triple-layered membrane that houses both the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes we consider the retina, optic nerve, olfactory epithelium, and olfactory nerves to be a part of the CNS together with the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System Function

The central nervous system has been a part of thorough studies for anatomists and physiologists, but it still has kept many secrets; it controls our thoughts, emotions, movements, and desires. The central nervous system controls our heart rate, breathing, body temperature, the release of some hormones, and much more.

Central Nervous System Composition

Here, we will discuss both primary parts of the central nervous system: the brain and the Spinal cord. The brain As we all know, it is the most complex organ of the human body; the cerebral cortex (the most considerable part by volume and the outermost part of the brain) contains around 15 to 33 million neurons, and each of the neurons are connected to thousands of other neurons. Approximately 100 billion neurons and a thousand billion glial (support) cells make up the human brain. Our brain uses about 20% of our body’s total energy.

The brain is the central control system of the body that coordinates activity, from physical motion to the creation of memories, the secretion of hormones, and the sensation of emotion. To carry out various functions, some brain sections have dedicated roles. However, many higher functions such as problem-saving, reasoning, and creativity involve different areas to work together in a fixed network.

The four roughly split lobes of the brain include:

  • Temporal lobe (green): is essential for processing sensory input and assigning emotional meaning to it. The temporal lobe is also helpful in laying down long-term memories, and some aspects of language perception also take place here.
  • Occipital lobe (purple)- It is the visual processing region of the brain that houses the visual cortex.
  • Parietal lobe (purple)– It integrates sensory information regarding touch, navigation, and spatial awareness. Touch stimulation beginning from the skin ultimately reaches the parietal lobe. This lobe also plays a role in language processing.
  • Frontal lobe (pink)– It is set at the front of the brain; the frontal lobe contains most dopamine-sensitive neurons and is involved in attention, short-term memory, reward, motivation, and planning.

Brain regions

  • Basal ganglia: It helps control voluntary muscle movements, procedure learning, and making decisions regarding which motor activities to carry out. Diseases that may affect this part of the brain include Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Cerebellum: It mainly deals with precise motor control, but also in attention and language perception. If the cerebellum is damaged, the primary symptom is ataxia, a condition concerning disrupted motor control.
  • Broca’s area: A small area on the left part of the brain (sometimes on the right side in left-handed individuals) plays a vital role in language processing. When damaged, a person finds it difficult to understand what is being said. Sometimes, stuttering is linked with underactive Broca’s area.
  • Corpus callosum: It is a broad structure of nerve fibers that joins the right and left hemispheres. The Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure present in the brain that allows the two hemispheres to communicate. Dyslexic children have a smaller corpus callosum size; ambidextrous people, left-handed people, and musicians have a typically larger one.
  • Medulla oblongata: extending below the skull, this part is involved in involuntary functions, such as breathing, sneezing, vomiting, and maintaining the appropriate blood pressure.

Hypothalamus is set up just above the brainstem and quite the size of an almond; this part of the brain secretes several neurohormones that impact body temperature control, hunger, and thirst.

  • Thalamus: It is positioned in the center part of the brain; the thalamus accepts sensory and motor input that relays it to the rest of the cerebral cortex. It helps regulate sleep, consciousness, alertness, and awareness.
  • Amygdala: It is two almond-shaped nuclei stored deep within the temporal lobe. This part is responsible for decision-making, emotional responses, and memory, specifically adverse effects.

Spinal cord

The spinal cord that runs almost the entire back length sinks the information between the brain and body and carries our other specific tasks. From the brainstem, where the brain and spinal cord meets), 31 spinal cords enter the cord. Its length connects with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerves that run in from the muscles, skin, and joints. Motor commands from the brain travel directly from the spine to the muscles. In contrast, the sensory information travels from the sensory tissues, including the skin, towards the spinal cord and eventually ends up in the brain.

The spinal cord contains various circuits that control specific reflexive responses, including the involuntary movement of your arm made if your finger accidentally touches a flame. The circuits within the spine can also aid more complex movements such as walking. Even without any brain input, the spinal nerves can coordinate the muscles required to walk. For example, if the brain and spine are separated so that the brain has no contact with the body, it will begin spontaneously walking while placing it on the treadmill. The effective functioning of the brain is only to start and stop the process or make changes if an object appears in your path.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases

The major causes of disorders or diseases that affect the CNS may include:

  • Trauma: Based upon the injury site, symptoms can range widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
  • Infections: Some viruses and microorganisms can invade the core of the central nervous system; these include protozoa; fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; viruses; malaria; bacteria, as in the case of leprosy.
  • Degeneration: In some rare cases, the brain and spinal cord can regenerate. Parkinson’s disease is one of the examples which involves the gradual disintegration of dopamine-producing cells present in the basal ganglia.
  • Structural defects: The most common example includes congenital disabilities, such as anencephaly, where parts of the brain, skull, and scalp are missing at birth.
  • Tumors: Both noncancerous and cancerous tumors can affect parts of the central nervous system. Both types of tumors can cause CNS damage and yield an array of symptoms depending upon the part of the body where it develops.
  • Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, an individual’s immune system can mount an attack on the healthy cells. For instance, the characteristics of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune response against the spinal cord and brain, attacking the nerves’ insulation (myelin) and destroying white matter of the brain.
  • Stroke: It is a blood supply interruption to the brain; the resulting oxygen deficiency causes tissue to die in the infected area.

How does alcohol affect the CNS and brain?

Alcohol addiction or overconsumption can affect several brain parts and, in general, contract brain tissues, destroy brain cells, and, most importantly, depress the central nervous system. Excessive drinking over a prolonged period can cause severe problems with cognition and memory. Alcohol is a depressant product that can slow down the significant functions of the CNS and cause mental confusion, slurred speech, poor muscle control, and blurry vision.

How to keep the nervous system healthy?

Just like other body parts, your brain also needs proper sleep for rest and repair, and primarily an excellent regular sleep cycle is the key. A healthy balanced diet that contains food rich in omega-3 fatty acids is also important. It can include fatty fish such as albacore tuna, salmon, herring, mackerel, and farmed trout.

Follow a regime to avoid stress as it can also affect the central nervous system. A few things you can do to keep your CNS healthy may include:

  • Allow yourself to take a break
  • Exercise regularly
  • Try spending time with family and friends
  • Practice mindfulness with yoga or meditate

 

 

xanax bars

Yellow Xanax Bars Pain killers Pills

What are Xanax bars?

Xanax bars, planks, and zanies are all slang terms for the highest dosage of Xanax pill. It comes in different forms of medication like white Xanax  bars or yellow Xanax bars that can be divided into four people very easily. If a person has not developed the feeling of tolerance towards the drug, it can make the person get high by feelings of relaxation, severe drowsiness, and memory loss.

The reason Xanax bars are so dangerous because people often take them for reasons other than the one for which it is mainly prescribed. It’s a hugely popular drug among teens, youth, and college going students, and those whose brains and bodies are not fully developed have a high potential of getting addicted to the drug. Now that we have told you about what is Xanax and Xanax bars, let us talk about the two main forms of Xanax bars.

As you all might be knowing that the drug Xanax is the brand name of the drug alprazolam and belongs to a class of drugs called benzodiazepines, which act as central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The drug was first approved for intake to treat anxiety and panic disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), in 1981 and became one of the most prescribed drugs in the U.S. very soon. However, like other prescribed drugs, people also take higher doses of Xanax to get the same effect over and over again. After a certain point of time of taking the medication, we will suggest you that you should switch to a better form of medication or treatment to avoid the need or feeling of taking the drug.

The need or feeling of taking the drug over and over again leads to the person taking the drug getting addicted to it. One of the main reasons behind the addiction to the drug is getting high. Though people may get addicted to the drug even after taking it as prescribed, this kind of addiction is rarely seen.

How is green Xanax bars similar in strength to white and yellow Xanax bars?

A number of various pharmaceutical companies manufacture this form of medication of Xanax called green Xanax bars, which is similar to white and yellow Xanax bars in terms of strength of 2mg. Green Xanax bars are usually available in triangular, rectangular, and round shapes, and in the prescribed dose of range between 2mg to 3mg. Green Xanax bars are also known as green football Xanax and the strongest prescribed dose of green Xanax bars are 3mg. The price can range from $3 to $20 on an average according to the location from where green Xanax bars are being brought.

What is the strength of a yellow Xanax bars?

Yellow Xanax bars are the generic form of Xanax and have the number 039 imprinted on them. The strength of yellow Xanax bars are 2mg and are similar in nature to white Xanax bars. The street name for yellow Xanax bars are yellow school bus on account of the color and shape. Therefore, it is prescribed to buy yellow Xanax bars from an online pharmacy which provides you with the form of medication along with a prescription which will help you in taking this form of medication in the right manner.

How much is street value of yellow Xanax bars?

As we already told you that yellow Xanax bars are the generic form of the drug Xanax, which is prescribed to treat anxiety and panic disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The bars have the number 039 imprinted on them. The strength of Red Xanax bars are 2mg and are similar in nature to white Xanax bars. Although these days, most people prefer to buy Green Xanax bars from an online pharmacy to save time and money, some people choose to buy the bars from the street and the street price of the bars is roughly around $4 and is considered stronger than green Xanax bars or white Xanax bars.

If you buy the drug from the street, chances are that you may not be provided with real Blue Xanax bars and the price of the bars may vary from vendor to vendor selling them. That’s why whichever form of medication of Xanax you buy, we would recommend you to buy it only from an online pharmacy.

 

 

Xanax Types

What is Xanax? Xanax Types – Buy Xanax 2mg 1mg Online

Xanax is the brand name for Alprazolam. It is a short-acting benzodiazepine, which is helpful in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and panic attacks. This medicine works by affecting the brain chemicals that are unbalanced in people with anxiety. It mimics the effects of GABA and binds to the GABA receptors in the brain to produce a calming effect.

This drug can be habit-forming if a person takes it for an extended period, and there is also a potential for abuse of this medication. Because of these, this medicine comes under schedule IV of the controlled substance act, which means people will need a doctor’s prescription to buy Xanax online.

How to take Xanax?

Take Xanax as per the instruction of your doctor. The user should follow the prescription label carefully to avoid any health problem. One should also avoid taking more or less quantity of this medicine or taking it for longer than the prescribed period to minimize the risk of overdose and developing a dependence on it. If this drug stops working well, then inform the doctor instead of increasing the dosage.

Xanax Dosage

This medicine is readily available in the market, and anyone can buy Xanax online. Various factors influence the dose that a person should take includes:

  • Their Age
  • The severity of the condition
  • Any medical condition
  • Tolerance for this drug

You can also find the dosage information from the prescription label, which you can get with the medicine when you order 2mg Xanax online.

For Anxiety

  • The initial dosage is between 0.25 to 0.5mg that you should take three times a day
  • Gradually increase the dose every 3 to 4 days if required
  • Do not take more than 4mg in a single day

For Panic Disorder

Immediate-release

  • The initial dosage is 0.5mg three times a day
  • Increase the dose if necessary at an interval of 3 to 4 days

Extended-release

  • The initial dosage is between 0.5mg to 1mg once a day
  • Increase the dose by 1 mg at 3 to 4 days interval if required

Xanax Side Effects

Xanax is the number one prescription medication, but that doesn’t mean it cannot cause some adverse effects. Follow the instructions of the doctor carefully to minimize the risk of Xanax side effects. These side effects can range from mild inconveniences to severe health issues. It is always a good idea to inform your healthcare provider if you feel any undesirable symptoms after taking this drug.

Common side effects

  • Headache
  • Sleeping problems
  • Blurred vision
  • Diarrhea
  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of interest in sex
  • Upset stomach
  • Dry mouth
  • Stuffy nose

Severe side effects

    • Depression
  • Seizure
  • Tremor
  • Chest pain
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Suicidal thoughts
  • Uncontrolled muscle movements
  • Hallucinations

What to do if I miss a dose or get overdosed?

If its time for the next dose in the schedule, then skip the missed dose, as taking more than the required amount can result in an overdose.

People often order Xanax 1mg online and start using it without consulting with a doctor, and this is one of the significant causes of overdose. Look out for the following symptoms to make sure whether you have overdosed on this drug or not:

  • Impaired coordination
  • Drowsiness
  • Reduced reflexes
  • Confusion
  • Coma

If any of these occurs after taking this medicine, then do not ignore them and immediately get in touch with your healthcare provider, as in some extreme cases, an overdose might cause the patient to die.

Does-Methadone

How does methadone work | How long does Methadone Stay in your Body

What is Methadone, and what does it prescribe for?

Methadone is a pharmaceutical opioid that is currently marketed as oral concentration (10 mg/mL), oral solution (5 mg and 10 mg/5mL), tablet (5 mg, 10 mg, and 40 mg), injection (10 mg/mL) and powder (50 mg, 100 mg and 500 mg/bottle).

Methadone is a potent synthetic analgesic that is commonly prescribed to help reduce withdrawal symptoms in people addicted to heroin (opioid) or other narcotic drugs without causing the high. A medical professional can also use it as a part of drug addiction detoxification and maintenance programs.

It is available as a generic drug, and people may buy Methadone online also as a pain reliever medicine. The United States’ FDA has classified it as a schedule II-controlled substance under controlled substance act.

Drug Description

Generic Name: Methadone
Brand Name: Methadose, Dolophine
Classified As: Opioid Drug

Dosage

For Pain Management

Initial dose: 2.5mg to 10 mg every 8 to 12 hours
Maintenance dose: You may slowly increase or decrease your dosage as per the doctor’s indication

For Opiate Withdrawal

Initial dose: 20 mg to 30 mg orally; an additional dose of 5 mg to 10mg may be given orally after 2 – 4 hours if symptoms have not been suppressed or if symptoms reappear.
Maximum dose: 40 mg a day

Warnings

People with severe breathing problems such as asthma, breathing problems, or have a blockage in their intestine; should not take methadone. Misuse of such medication can cause addiction, overdose, or death, especially in teenagers who use it without prescription.

Using opioid medications like Methadone during pregnancy may cause life-threating withdrawal symptoms in the newborn baby. It can react to your breast milk and harm your newborn baby. This opioid can cause a life-threatening heart rhythm condition. Contact your healthcare provider at once if you experience headache with chest pain and severe dizziness, and fast heartbeats.

What special precautions should I follow?

Users should follow some necessary precautions to stay away from the adverse effects of Methadone. They should read follow instructions indicated by their doctor or pharmacist.

  • It would be best if you told your doctor about prescription and non-prescription drugs that you are currently taking or planning to take.
  • Tell your doctor or physician if you are allergic to methadone or any other ingredients or medicine. And tell him about allergic history with other drugs as well.
  • Consult your doctor if you have any severe medical condition, as mentioned in the warning section.
  • Users should know that Methadone may decrease fertility in women and men both. Discuss to your doctor about the risks of taking methadone.
  • Methadone can make you drowsy. Do not drive a vehicle or other machinery until you understand how this medication affects you.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Methadone can cause side effects. tell your healthcare adviser if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away;

  • Weight gain
  • Headache
  • Stomach pain
  • Sore tongue and dry mouth
  • Difficulty urinating and mood changes
  • Vision problems
  • Difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep
  • Vision problems, including blurred vision, etc.
  • Some effects can be dangerous. Get immediate medical help if you have any of below-given conditions;
  • Swelling of your face, mouth, eyes, throat, and tongue
  • Itching, seizures, hives, rash,
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Vomiting, nausea, weakness, loss of appetite, dizziness, or weakness
  • Inability to get or keep an erection
  • Irregular menstruation, and decreased sexual desire, etc.