Antibiotic Medicines – What You Need to Know?

Antibiotics, commonly known as antibacterial, are medications that slow down or eventually destroy the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics include a range of potent drugs, and they are used to treat diseases primarily caused by bacteria. Antibiotics can’t treat viral infections like cough, cold, and flu. In this blog, let us discuss what antibiotics are, their mechanism of work, tiredness as a side effect of antibiotics, and which antibiotics are safe during pregnancy.

What are Antibiotics?

Antibiotics are medicines that fight certain infections. They can save lives when used correctly. Antibiotics destroy bacteria or stop them from reproducing.

Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the body’s immune system can kill them. WBCs or white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, and even if symptoms occur the body’s immune system can typically cope and fight the infection. However, sometimes the harmful bacteria are excessive in number, and the immune system can’t fight all of them. Antibiotics are helpful in this scenario.

Penicillin was the first antibiotic. Penicillin-based antibiotics, like penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin, are still available to treat various infections. Using antibiotics without seeing a doctor or over-the-counter antibiotics, Various types of oral antibiotics are available, which are usually only available with a prescription in most countries. It is not advisable to consume antibiotics without consulting the doctor. Topical antibiotics are available in over-the-counter ointments and creams.

Few over-the-counter topical antibiotics that may be used on the skin to help prevent infections from minor wounds, burns, and scrapes, are:

  • Neosporin Plus (neomycin polymyxin/pramoxine) also contains pramoxine, a mild numbing medication,
  • Polysporin and generics ( bacitracin/polymyxin), and
  • Neosporin and generics (bacitracin/neomycin/polymyxin B).

OTC antibiotics, like benzoyl peroxide, are available for those with acne. Benzoyl Peroxide provides a drying effect and may be bought as brand names such as Proactiv, Oxy-10, and Clearskin.

Can antibiotics make you tired?

While taking prescription antibiotics, one can feel fatigued and tired. The tiredness can be a symptom of infection being treated by the antibiotic, or it could be a serious though rare side effect. Response to antibiotics varies by individual. Side effects like tiredness aren’t universal or uniform. Although it is rare, some of the antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin ( Proquin, Cipro), azithromycin ( Zmax, Z-Pak, and Zithromax), and amoxicillin ( Moxatag, Amoxil), can have side effects of weakness or tiredness.

It would be best if you discussed the potential for fatigue with the doctor when they prescribe antibiotics. You should also check the prescribing information to see if unusual weakness is listed as the possible side effect.

What if you miss a dose of antibiotics?

Antibiotics are generally taken between one and three times per day. Typically, your antibiotic doses should be equally spaced throughout the whole day. The doses must be taken at the same times every day. This helps in maintaining a constant level of medicine in the body. If you miss a single dose of antibiotics, there is probably no reason to worry because already your body has a reserve of antibiotics medicine from the previous dose. However, if you miss a couple of antibiotic doses or leave your antibiotic course without completing it, your body may develop antibiotic resistance, and the infection might not completely disappear.

In case you missed a dose of antibiotics, you should not double the next dose. Doing so would increase your chances of experiencing adverse side effects like vomiting, rashes, nausea, or diarrhea. You must take the missed dose as soon as you remember, or if it is about nearly time for the next dose of antibiotics, skip your missed dose altogether. Always refer to the PIL (patient information leaflet) that comes with your antibiotics, as it includes the manufacturer’s advice about what should be done if you missed a dose of your antibiotic medicine.

Which antibiotics are safe during pregnancy?

Antibiotics are often prescribed during pregnancy. However, you must choose the specific type of medication carefully. Some antibiotics are safe to take during pregnancy, while some others are not. Safety depends on different factors, like the type of antibiotic, how long and when in your pregnancy you take the antibiotic, the amount you are taking, and the possible side effects the antibiotic might have on your pregnancy.

Few antibiotics that are considered safe during pregnancy are:

  • Clindamycin ( Cleocin, Clindagel, Celinda-Derm)
  • Cephalosporins, including cephalexin ( Keflex) and cefaclor
  • Penicillins, including ampicillin and amoxicillin ( Amoxil)

Certain other antibiotics are said to pose risks during pregnancy; for example, sulfonamides are usually avoided during the first trimester and near the delivery time because sulfonamides might pose a risk of jaundice, cleft lip, or palate, and heart conditions. Tetracyclines may affect bone development or discolor a developing fetus’s teeth. Tetracyclines must not be used after the fifth week of pregnancy.

muscle pain relief

Best for muscle pain relief

Best for muscle pain relief

Carisoprodol is a medicine used for treating musculoskeletal pain. It is available under the brand name SOMA. It is a muscle relaxer that works by inhibiting the pain felt from the nerves to the brain. It is used to treat intense pain conditions or injuries. It came to market in 1959 in the USA. It helps in reducing the pain of strains, sprains, or other damages. It is also used in supplements with other opioids for benzodiazepines for recreational use or medicinal abuse for personal amusements. Mainly it is used as a muscle relaxant. It is available in tablet form and can be taken orally three times a day or as advised.

Important uses

Trapezius muscle pain relief is a primary goal achieved by this medication. The trapezius is an upper back muscle in the human body. It runs from the skull to the thoracic spine at the back. It is triangular and plays a vital role in establishing both the shoulders. It facilitates neck movement also. Generally, pain in this muscle leads to major discomforts, like any spasm, stiffness, pain. Intense physical activity, standing for a long time, stress, etc. factors lead to this pain. Carisoprodol is the best for muscle pain relief. Its effect generally lasts up to six hours. It calms down the pain and gives a soothing effect. The daily human lifestyle is harshly affecting our bodies. Exercise is being challenged to include in the daily schedule. In this scenario, medical assistance is necessary and should not be ignored at any cost.

Another prominent kind of muscle exposed to lifestyle hazards is the psoas muscle. Carisoprodol helps get much of Psoas muscle pain relief. Psoas major is a muscle located in the vertebral column and lesser pelvic region. It joins the upper body with the lower body. Carisoprodol is the best muscle pain relief medication. It relaxes the muscle and helps in free movement.  The excessive activity of standing in one position, improper sleeping mattress or running may cause this muscle to stiffen and become painful.

Muscle pain relief medicine

Carisoprodol relaxes the muscle and produces a calming effect. Sportspeople usually complain of this type of pain. For them, carisoprodol is best for pain relief. It relaxes their strengths and lets them work and practice comfortably. Do take the advice of your doctor before you buy carisoprodol online. Share your medical history and allergies, if any, with him to avoid any interaction or adverse effects on health. Any painkiller or even medicine for a cold could interact with this drug and lead to severe consequences. Carisoprodol withdrawal symptoms may also occur.

Carisoprodol is also best for neck muscle pain relief. Neck pain is a common problem now. Every third person complains about the intense neck pain. No age group is left untouched by this problem. There can be various causes for neck pain, like sitting for hours in front of the computer.  People working on computers at offices usually suffer from neck issues. Using an inappropriate pillow while sleeping or significant shock or injury can also be the reason for neck pain. Stress is an unavoidable part of the human lifestyle now, and it contributes significantly to various physical issues like neck pain in common. Such people can buy Carisoprodol. It is best for neck muscle pain relief.

 Possible side effects of taking Carisoprodol

Although it is an effective pain reducer and muscle relaxant, it has several side effects like other analgesics. It is strictly recommended to take this medicine as per the doctor’s advice only. This drug may cause physical dependence and lead to withdrawal symptoms. Do not take this medicine higher than prescribed .It may cause hazardous effects like breathing difficulty, altered blood pressure, coma, or death. Common side effects observed are:

  • Dizziness
  • headache
  • clumsiness
  • fast heart rate
  • upset stomach
  • vomiting
  • Skin rashes.
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Fatigue
  • Seizures
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness
  • Drowsiness

Pregnant women must take this medicine as per doctors’ recommendations only. It may cause life-threatening situations for the fetes as well as the mother. It may lead to premature birth, mutations, coma, or even death. It does pass through breast milk also. Tell your doctor about other medications you were taking or any health supplements. Drugs like cough, cold, sleep, nausea, depression, etc., may also contain the amount of sedative. Its intake simultaneously with Carisoprodol may cause overdose, which may lead to severe consequences. It is strictly not advised to take alcohol along with this drug. It leads to harmful effects. Withdrawal symptoms like sudden mood or behavioural changes, breathing depression, seizures, agitation, anxiety, hallucinations, etc., may appear. They may last for a year or more.

Further details

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Brain-regions central nervous system

Central nervous system function

What is the Central Nervous System?

The central nervous system (CNS) is a substantial body part that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The skull (cranial cavity) protects the brain, and the spinal cord travels from the back part of the brain down to the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back.

Meninges: It is a protective triple-layered membrane that houses both the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes we consider the retina, optic nerve, olfactory epithelium, and olfactory nerves to be a part of the CNS together with the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System Function

The central nervous system has been a part of thorough studies for anatomists and physiologists, but it still has kept many secrets; it controls our thoughts, emotions, movements, and desires. The central nervous system controls our heart rate, breathing, body temperature, the release of some hormones, and much more.

Central Nervous System Composition

Here, we will discuss both primary parts of the central nervous system: the brain and the Spinal cord. The brain As we all know, it is the most complex organ of the human body; the cerebral cortex (the most considerable part by volume and the outermost part of the brain) contains around 15 to 33 million neurons, and each of the neurons are connected to thousands of other neurons. Approximately 100 billion neurons and a thousand billion glial (support) cells make up the human brain. Our brain uses about 20% of our body’s total energy.

The brain is the central control system of the body that coordinates activity, from physical motion to the creation of memories, the secretion of hormones, and the sensation of emotion. To carry out various functions, some brain sections have dedicated roles. However, many higher functions such as problem-saving, reasoning, and creativity involve different areas to work together in a fixed network.

The four roughly split lobes of the brain include:

  • Temporal lobe (green): is essential for processing sensory input and assigning emotional meaning to it. The temporal lobe is also helpful in laying down long-term memories, and some aspects of language perception also take place here.
  • Occipital lobe (purple)- It is the visual processing region of the brain that houses the visual cortex.
  • Parietal lobe (purple)– It integrates sensory information regarding touch, navigation, and spatial awareness. Touch stimulation beginning from the skin ultimately reaches the parietal lobe. This lobe also plays a role in language processing.
  • Frontal lobe (pink)– It is set at the front of the brain; the frontal lobe contains most dopamine-sensitive neurons and is involved in attention, short-term memory, reward, motivation, and planning.

Brain regions

  • Basal ganglia: It helps control voluntary muscle movements, procedure learning, and making decisions regarding which motor activities to carry out. Diseases that may affect this part of the brain include Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Cerebellum: It mainly deals with precise motor control, but also in attention and language perception. If the cerebellum is damaged, the primary symptom is ataxia, a condition concerning disrupted motor control.
  • Broca’s area: A small area on the left part of the brain (sometimes on the right side in left-handed individuals) plays a vital role in language processing. When damaged, a person finds it difficult to understand what is being said. Sometimes, stuttering is linked with underactive Broca’s area.
  • Corpus callosum: It is a broad structure of nerve fibers that joins the right and left hemispheres. The Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure present in the brain that allows the two hemispheres to communicate. Dyslexic children have a smaller corpus callosum size; ambidextrous people, left-handed people, and musicians have a typically larger one.
  • Medulla oblongata: extending below the skull, this part is involved in involuntary functions, such as breathing, sneezing, vomiting, and maintaining the appropriate blood pressure.

Hypothalamus is set up just above the brainstem and quite the size of an almond; this part of the brain secretes several neurohormones that impact body temperature control, hunger, and thirst.

  • Thalamus: It is positioned in the center part of the brain; the thalamus accepts sensory and motor input that relays it to the rest of the cerebral cortex. It helps regulate sleep, consciousness, alertness, and awareness.
  • Amygdala: It is two almond-shaped nuclei stored deep within the temporal lobe. This part is responsible for decision-making, emotional responses, and memory, specifically adverse effects.

Spinal cord

The spinal cord that runs almost the entire back length sinks the information between the brain and body and carries our other specific tasks. From the brainstem, where the brain and spinal cord meets), 31 spinal cords enter the cord. Its length connects with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerves that run in from the muscles, skin, and joints. Motor commands from the brain travel directly from the spine to the muscles. In contrast, the sensory information travels from the sensory tissues, including the skin, towards the spinal cord and eventually ends up in the brain.

The spinal cord contains various circuits that control specific reflexive responses, including the involuntary movement of your arm made if your finger accidentally touches a flame. The circuits within the spine can also aid more complex movements such as walking. Even without any brain input, the spinal nerves can coordinate the muscles required to walk. For example, if the brain and spine are separated so that the brain has no contact with the body, it will begin spontaneously walking while placing it on the treadmill. The effective functioning of the brain is only to start and stop the process or make changes if an object appears in your path.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases

The major causes of disorders or diseases that affect the CNS may include:

  • Trauma: Based upon the injury site, symptoms can range widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
  • Infections: Some viruses and microorganisms can invade the core of the central nervous system; these include protozoa; fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; viruses; malaria; bacteria, as in the case of leprosy.
  • Degeneration: In some rare cases, the brain and spinal cord can regenerate. Parkinson’s disease is one of the examples which involves the gradual disintegration of dopamine-producing cells present in the basal ganglia.
  • Structural defects: The most common example includes congenital disabilities, such as anencephaly, where parts of the brain, skull, and scalp are missing at birth.
  • Tumors: Both noncancerous and cancerous tumors can affect parts of the central nervous system. Both types of tumors can cause CNS damage and yield an array of symptoms depending upon the part of the body where it develops.
  • Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, an individual’s immune system can mount an attack on the healthy cells. For instance, the characteristics of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune response against the spinal cord and brain, attacking the nerves’ insulation (myelin) and destroying white matter of the brain.
  • Stroke: It is a blood supply interruption to the brain; the resulting oxygen deficiency causes tissue to die in the infected area.

How does alcohol affect the CNS and brain?

Alcohol addiction or overconsumption can affect several brain parts and, in general, contract brain tissues, destroy brain cells, and, most importantly, depress the central nervous system. Excessive drinking over a prolonged period can cause severe problems with cognition and memory. Alcohol is a depressant product that can slow down the significant functions of the CNS and cause mental confusion, slurred speech, poor muscle control, and blurry vision.

How to keep the nervous system healthy?

Just like other body parts, your brain also needs proper sleep for rest and repair, and primarily an excellent regular sleep cycle is the key. A healthy balanced diet that contains food rich in omega-3 fatty acids is also important. It can include fatty fish such as albacore tuna, salmon, herring, mackerel, and farmed trout.

Follow a regime to avoid stress as it can also affect the central nervous system. A few things you can do to keep your CNS healthy may include:

  • Allow yourself to take a break
  • Exercise regularly
  • Try spending time with family and friends
  • Practice mindfulness with yoga or meditate