Symptoms Causes and Treatment for Diabetes


Diabetes is a widespread condition that impairs the ability of your body to process blood glucose, popularly known as blood sugar. Several types of diabetes have various treatments. In the United States, there are about 34.2 billion people of all ages living with diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes. Without careful, ongoing treatment and management, it can accumulate sugars in the blood, further increasing the risk of dangerous medical significant health complications, such as stroke and heart disease.

Every it typically has a different treatment, and not all forms of it initiate from an individual being overweight or living an inactive life. Some diabetes types are present from childhood. The most common diabetes types include type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. At the same time, the less known it forms have cystic fibrosis-related it and monogenic diabetes. This blog will help you know more about the conditions of it and its other details.

What are the early signs of diabetes?

Hunger and fatigue: Our body changes the food into glucose used by the cells for energy. But our body cells need insulin to take in glucose. If the body does not make insulin or the cells refuse the insulin our body produces, the glucose fails to get into them, and we have no energy. It can make us tired and hungrier than usual.

Feeling thirstier than usual and peeing more often: An average person usually urinate between four to seven times a day, but people who have it do it more often than usual. Usually, the body reabsorbs glucose as it leaves through our kidneys, but when it pushes up the blood sugar level, the kidneys may not bring it all back in. And it causes the body to urinate more. Because of consistent urination, our body lacks fluid and makes us very thirsty.

Dry mouth and itchy skin: Since our body is using maximum fluids to make pee, there is less moisture left for other things. We may get dehydration, and our mouth can feel dry. Due to dry skin, we may feel itchiness.

Blurred vision: Changes in fluid levels of our body can make the eyes’ lenses swell up. It can result in shape change, and we may be unable to focus.

What is type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes (juvenile diabetes) occurs when the body fails to produce insulin. What is insulin? It is a hormone that breaks down the sugar in the blood to function throughout the body. It is more likely to diagnose this it form during childhood.

People living with type 1 it require to take insulin regularly, either by injections or an insulin pump. There is still no cure for this condition, but one may control it by regularly monitoring their blood sugar levels, administering insulin, and making significant lifestyle changes.

Some common complications related to type 1 it are nerve damage, ketoacidosis, increased risk of skin reaction, problems concerning eyes, cardiovascular disease, kidney issues, high blood pressure, foot problems (such as numbness), stroke.

Since this condition usually occurs during childhood, there are no apparent symptoms of type 1 diabetes.

What is type 2 diabetes?

Type 2 it does not let an individual make or use insulin effectively. According to NIDDK reports, it is the most common diabetes type, and it has a strong relation with obesity. A person living with this type of diabetes may or may not administer insulin. In maximum cases, taking proper medication and changes in diet and some exercise can help manage type 2 diabetes.

Both children & adults can develop this type of diabetes. This condition’s common risk factors include age 45 or more, family history, or being overweight.

Type 2 diabetes symptoms?

Yeast infections: Both men & women with diabetes can get these infections. Yeast feeds on glucose, so having an excessive amount around makes it thrive. Conditions can grow in any moist, warm fold of skin, including under breasts, between fingers and toes, or in or close to sex organs.

Slow-healing cuts or sores: With time, high blood sugar levels can affect the blood flow resulting in nerve damage that makes it difficult for your body to heal wounds. Nerve damage can further cause pain (or numbness) in your feet or legs.

What is Gestational diabetes?

Gestational it occurs during pregnancy, while a person becomes less sensitive to insulin. According to the CDC reports, 2 to 10% of pregnancies result in gestational diabetes each year. The risks are elevated in individuals going into pregnancy while being overweight.

The report further adds that about 50 % of individuals with gestational it later develop type 2 diabetes. During pregnancy, one can take the following measures to control this situation: stay active, adjust your diet, monitor the growth and development of the fetus, and keep a check on the blood sugar levels.

Gestational diabetes increases the risk of developing high blood pressure while an individual is pregnant that can result in:

  • premature birth
  • blood sugar problems with the newborn usually clear up in a few days
  • increased birth weight
  • increased risk of the newborn developing type 2 diabetes later


How to prevent diabetes?

One may not prevent type 1 it . However, individuals can take some measures to prevent type 2 diabetes, including exercising regularly, maintaining a moderate weight, and having a balanced diet with low added sugars, processed foods, and saturated fats. One should maintain a proper weight while planning for pregnancy.

What causes low blood sugar without diabetes?

People who do not have it can experience low blood sugar levels due to hypoglycemia. This condition can occur if the body produces excessive insulin after a meal, causing blood sugar levels to drop.

Which drug can cause diabetes insidious?

Lithium is the drug that most commonly causes acquired nephrogenic it insipidus. It is an effective drug to treat bipolar disorder, but long-term lithium use may damage the kidney cells, so they no longer react to AVP.


Best Anti Inflammatory and Medication for Bursitis

What is Bursitis?

Bursitis is a painful medical condition that affects your joints. Bursitis can limit the ways you can move your joints. It occurs when bursae, fluid-filled sacs, become inflamed. Bursae acts as a cushion and lubricate points between tendons, bones, and muscles. And there are more than 150 bursae in our bodies.

Bursae surround the areas where skin, tendons, and muscle tissues meet bones. The lubrication they add to the bones helps reduce friction during the movement of the joint. Bursitis is an inflammation of your bursae, and inflamed bursae cause pain and severe discomfort in the affected location. When an individual has this medical problem, the bursae become inflamed, making pressure or movement of the specific area can be excruciating. Injury, overuse, or inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis or gout may cause bursitis.

What causes Bursitis?

Bursitis can happen from an infection, an injury, or a pre-existing condition such as gout, which can form crystals to form in a bursa.


Physical trauma may irritate the tissue inside the bursa and cause inflammation. This trauma is more likely to occur because of an impact injury or overuse of the tendons, joints, or muscles near the bursa. Overuse is usually the result of repetitive joint movementṣ.

The cause of this medical condition can determine the area of your body affected. Some possible reasons are:

  • Knee: Repeated, continuous kneeling can cause injury and swelling of the bursae in the knee area.
  • Elbow: Repetitive elbow bending can cause damage and inflammation. Hence this condition is a problem among golfers and tennis players.
  • Shoulder: Repetitive overhead lifting or reaching heights can cause shoulder bursitis
  • Ankle: Injury of the ankle can happen if walking excessively and with the wrong shoes.
  • Buttocks: The bursae near the lower pelvis can inflame after sitting on a hard surface for a prolonged time, such as on a bicycle. Here, an individual may notice discomfort in both buttocks and legs.
  • Hips: Hip bursitis can occur due to excessive stair climbing, running, or standing for an extended time.


Infectious bursitis usually occurs in the bursae near the skin surface, such as the elbow. A skin cut is an opportunity for the bacteria to strike in. As with other bursitis forms, repetitive trauma and overuse of joints close to bursae are the common causes of any infectious bursitis. People with health conditions concerning the immune system may have a higher risk of developing bursitis due to an infection.

Health conditions

People with specific medical conditions are more likely to form crystals inside the bursa. The crystals make the bursa swell by irritating it. Some situations that may cause bursitis include rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and scleroderma.

What is Bursitis of the hip?

  • Bursitis of the hip, also known as Trochanteric bursitis, is a painful condition with swelling and causes joint pain and tenderness. Under this condition, one may feel the warmth and spray close to the affected area.
  • Often, the pain is sharp, usually in the first few days, may get dull and achy later. You may experience it more while getting up from the chair or bed or sitting for a prolonged duration and sleeping on the affected side.
  • Several things cause hip bursitides, such as rheumatoid arthritis, repeated overuse or stress of the hip, gout (or pseudogout), injury of the hip, diabetes, uneven leg lengths, infection with bacteria (staphylococcus aureus or staph infection), spine problems (such as scoliosis), or bone spurs (growth of a new bone on top of a normal bone) on the hip.

How to heal hip bursitis quickly?

  • Hip bursitis treatment usually involves stretching and strengthening exercises as it helps prevent muscle atrophy. Ask your medical healthcare provider about activities that can quickly help build strength in the area.
  • Your hip bursitis can affect your ability to function normally; in that case, you may need effective physical therapy to move again. Inability to function comes typically, especially when you have chronic bursitis.
  • To get quick relief, you can also use nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen (also comes as brand names: Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (also known as Aleve) to relieve pain and swelling.

How to treat bursitis in the shoulder?

Pain medication, rest, and icing the joint may help relieve your bursitis. However, other treatment measures may be necessary:

  • Corticosteroids can help reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation as much as there is no evidence of infection in or near the bursa
  • Antibiotics are essential if the bursa is infected
  • At-home exercises may also help relieve pain and other symptoms. You may rarely need physical therapy.

How long does bursitis last?

Bursitis can last from a few days to a few weeks. One can treat the condition at home and make it go away in a few weeks. Bursitis is more likely to improve within a few days or weeks if you take proper rest and treat the affected area. But it may come back if you do not stretch and strengthen the muscles near the joint and change some activities.



Natural remedies for anxiety and depression

Overview of Depression

Major depressive disorder, popularly known as depression in general term, is a mood disorder that makes an individual feel constant sadness or lack of interest in life. Data from CDC estimates that 18.5 % of adults in the United States had depression symptoms in any given two-week period in 2019.

Sadness and depressed feelings are ordinary in everyone’s life at times, and it is a normal reaction to the changes and challenges of life. But when this condition turns into a feeling of intense sadness, including thoughts of hopelessness, helplessness, and worthlessness, which last for several weeks and keep you from living your life, it may be something more than ordinary sadness. It is clinical depression.

Lexapro 20mg

It strikes people in different ways. It may interfere with the daily working routine, resulting in lower productivity and lost time. It can also trigger some chronic health problems and influence relationships, and the medical conditions that can worsen due to depression include asthma, arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes.

Suppose you wonder if treating this mental condition is possible; yes! It is a treatable problem. This blog will help you understand more about Depression and its treatment.

What are the signs and symptoms of Depression?

It can cause various symptoms ranging from constant sadness to feeling “blue” or more. Some symptoms of depression affect your mood, while others can affect your body.

General signs and symptoms of depression

It is not the same for everyone; symptoms can vary in severity, how long they last, and how often they happen. If you face some of the depression signs and symptoms nearly every day for at least two weeks, you may have depression:

  • feeling anxious, sad, or “empty,” crying a lot
  • feeling worthless, pessimistic, bothered, hopeless, angry, or annoyed
  • loss of interest in activities once you used to love doing
  • difficulty remembering, concentrating, or making decisions
  • feeling fatigued or decreased energy
  • sleeping problems, appetite, or weight changes
  • chronic physical pain with no particular reason, such as digestive problems, headaches, cramps, aches, or pain
  • thoughts or self-harm, suicide, death, suicidal thoughts

Depression symptoms in males

  • Mood: aggressiveness, anger, anxiousness, irritability, or restlessness
  • Changes in behavior: loss of interest, feeling tired quickly, no longer feeling pleasure in the activities you used to love once, drinking excessively, using drugs, thoughts of suicide, or engaging in high-risk activities
  • Cognitive abilities: difficulty completing tasks, inability to concentrate, or delayed responses during conversations
  • Sexual interest: lack of sexual performance or reduced sexual desire
  • Sleep patterns: restless sleep, insomnia, excessive sleepiness, or not sleeping at all
  • Physical well being: pain, fatigue, digestive problems, or headache

Depression symptoms in females

  • Mood, such as irritability
  • Changes in behavior: loss of or no interest in activities, thoughts of suicide, or withdrawing oneself from social engagements
  • Emotional well being: feeling sad or empty, hopeless, or anxious
  • Cognitive abilities: thinking or talking more slowly
  • Sleep patterns: difficulty sleeping or excessive sleeping
  • Physical well being: digestive problems, loss of energy, weight loss or gain, or changes in appetite

What are the different types of Depression?

Some of the known depression types may include:

  • Unipolar major depression
  • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, when an individual gets very angry, cranky, and often display intense outbursts
  • Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), a depression lasting for more than two years
  • Substance-induced mood disorder (SIMD), the symptoms usually occur when you are taking a medicine or consuming alcohol or after you stop taking any substance
  • Premenstrual dysphoric disorder, when a woman goes through severe mood problems before periods, is much more intense than the typical premenstrual syndrome (PMS).

What are the causes of Depression?

Causes of depression can range from biological factors to circumstantial factors. But the common causes include:

  • Brain chemistry: A chemical imbalance in the brain parts that manage thoughts, mood, appetite, sleep, and behavior in people who are dealing with depression.
  • Hormone levels: It is one of the common it causes in females. Changes in female hormones progesterone and estrogen during various periods in life such as perimenopause, menstrual cycle, postpartum period, or menopause may raise the risk of depression in women.
  • Family history: You are at a higher risk if you have a family past of it or other similar mood disorders.
  • Early childhood trauma: Some events affect how your body reacts to fear and other stressful situations.
  • Brain structure: The risk of it is higher if your brain’s frontal lobe is less active.
  • Substance use: If you have a history of substance use disorder or alcoholism, it can affect your risk.
  • Pain: People who feel chronic physical pain or emotional pain for prolonged duration are significantly more prone to develop it.
  • Medical conditions: Specific medical conditions may put you at higher risk, such as insomnia, chronic illness, Parkinson’s disease, chronic pain, heart attack, and cancer.

How to deal with Depression?

You may successfully manage it by using one form of treatment persistently, or you find a combination best suitable for you. Some of the common categories of medications may include SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (NDRIs), and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists.


Conversing with a therapist can help you cope with specific negative feelings and benefit from group therapy sessions or family. It is also known as “talk therapy” and is famous as an effective treatment. Psychotherapy is often prescribed together with pharmaceutical treatment. A combination of an effective drug and psychotherapy can come out as a catalyst in your it treatment.


Antibiotic Medicines – What You Need to Know?

Antibiotics, commonly known as antibacterial, are medications that slow down or eventually destroy the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics include a range of potent drugs, and they are used to treat diseases primarily caused by bacteria. Antibiotics can’t treat viral infections like cough, cold, and flu. In this blog, let us discuss what antibiotics are, their mechanism of work, tiredness as a side effect of antibiotics, and which antibiotics are safe during pregnancy.

What are Antibiotics?

Antibiotics are medicines that fight certain infections. They can save lives when used correctly. Antibiotics destroy bacteria or stop them from reproducing.

Before bacteria can multiply and cause symptoms, the body’s immune system can kill them. WBCs or white blood cells attack harmful bacteria, and even if symptoms occur the body’s immune system can typically cope and fight the infection. However, sometimes the harmful bacteria are excessive in number, and the immune system can’t fight all of them. Antibiotics are helpful in this scenario.

Penicillin was the first antibiotic. Penicillin-based antibiotics, like penicillin G, amoxicillin, and ampicillin, are still available to treat various infections. Using antibiotics without seeing a doctor or over-the-counter antibiotics, Various types of oral antibiotics are available, which are usually only available with a prescription in most countries. It is not advisable to consume antibiotics without consulting the doctor. Topical antibiotics are available in over-the-counter ointments and creams.

Few over-the-counter topical antibiotics that may be used on the skin to help prevent infections from minor wounds, burns, and scrapes, are:

  • Neosporin Plus (neomycin polymyxin/pramoxine) also contains pramoxine, a mild numbing medication,
  • Polysporin and generics ( bacitracin/polymyxin), and
  • Neosporin and generics (bacitracin/neomycin/polymyxin B).

OTC antibiotics, like benzoyl peroxide, are available for those with acne. Benzoyl Peroxide provides a drying effect and may be bought as brand names such as Proactiv, Oxy-10, and Clearskin.

Can antibiotics make you tired?

While taking prescription antibiotics, one can feel fatigued and tired. The tiredness can be a symptom of infection being treated by the antibiotic, or it could be a serious though rare side effect. Response to antibiotics varies by individual. Side effects like tiredness aren’t universal or uniform. Although it is rare, some of the antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin ( Proquin, Cipro), azithromycin ( Zmax, Z-Pak, and Zithromax), and amoxicillin ( Moxatag, Amoxil), can have side effects of weakness or tiredness.

It would be best if you discussed the potential for fatigue with the doctor when they prescribe antibiotics. You should also check the prescribing information to see if unusual weakness is listed as the possible side effect.

What if you miss a dose of antibiotics?

Antibiotics are generally taken between one and three times per day. Typically, your antibiotic doses should be equally spaced throughout the whole day. The doses must be taken at the same times every day. This helps in maintaining a constant level of medicine in the body. If you miss a single dose of antibiotics, there is probably no reason to worry because already your body has a reserve of antibiotics medicine from the previous dose. However, if you miss a couple of antibiotic doses or leave your antibiotic course without completing it, your body may develop antibiotic resistance, and the infection might not completely disappear.

In case you missed a dose of antibiotics, you should not double the next dose. Doing so would increase your chances of experiencing adverse side effects like vomiting, rashes, nausea, or diarrhea. You must take the missed dose as soon as you remember, or if it is about nearly time for the next dose of antibiotics, skip your missed dose altogether. Always refer to the PIL (patient information leaflet) that comes with your antibiotics, as it includes the manufacturer’s advice about what should be done if you missed a dose of your antibiotic medicine.

Which antibiotics are safe during pregnancy?

Antibiotics are often prescribed during pregnancy. However, you must choose the specific type of medication carefully. Some antibiotics are safe to take during pregnancy, while some others are not. Safety depends on different factors, like the type of antibiotic, how long and when in your pregnancy you take the antibiotic, the amount you are taking, and the possible side effects the antibiotic might have on your pregnancy.

Few antibiotics that are considered safe during pregnancy are:

  • Clindamycin ( Cleocin, Clindagel, Celinda-Derm)
  • Cephalosporins, including cephalexin ( Keflex) and cefaclor
  • Penicillins, including ampicillin and amoxicillin ( Amoxil)

Certain other antibiotics are said to pose risks during pregnancy; for example, sulfonamides are usually avoided during the first trimester and near the delivery time because sulfonamides might pose a risk of jaundice, cleft lip, or palate, and heart conditions. Tetracyclines may affect bone development or discolor a developing fetus’s teeth. Tetracyclines must not be used after the fifth week of pregnancy.

muscle pain relief

Best for muscle pain relief

Best for muscle pain relief

Carisoprodol is a medicine used for treating musculoskeletal pain. It is available under the brand name SOMA. It is a muscle relaxer that works by inhibiting the pain felt from the nerves to the brain. It is used to treat intense pain conditions or injuries. It came to market in 1959 in the USA. It helps in reducing the pain of strains, sprains, or other damages. It is also used in supplements with other opioids for benzodiazepines for recreational use or medicinal abuse for personal amusements. Mainly it is used as a muscle relaxant. It is available in tablet form and can be taken orally three times a day or as advised.

Important uses

Trapezius muscle pain relief is a primary goal achieved by this medication. The trapezius is an upper back muscle in the human body. It runs from the skull to the thoracic spine at the back. It is triangular and plays a vital role in establishing both the shoulders. It facilitates neck movement also. Generally, pain in this muscle leads to major discomforts, like any spasm, stiffness, pain. Intense physical activity, standing for a long time, stress, etc. factors lead to this pain. Carisoprodol is the best for muscle pain relief. Its effect generally lasts up to six hours. It calms down the pain and gives a soothing effect. The daily human lifestyle is harshly affecting our bodies. Exercise is being challenged to include in the daily schedule. In this scenario, medical assistance is necessary and should not be ignored at any cost.

Another prominent kind of muscle exposed to lifestyle hazards is the psoas muscle. Carisoprodol helps get much of Psoas muscle pain relief. Psoas major is a muscle located in the vertebral column and lesser pelvic region. It joins the upper body with the lower body. Carisoprodol is the best muscle pain relief medication. It relaxes the muscle and helps in free movement.  The excessive activity of standing in one position, improper sleeping mattress or running may cause this muscle to stiffen and become painful.

Muscle pain relief medicine

Carisoprodol relaxes the muscle and produces a calming effect. Sportspeople usually complain of this type of pain. For them, carisoprodol is best for pain relief. It relaxes their strengths and lets them work and practice comfortably. Do take the advice of your doctor before you buy carisoprodol online. Share your medical history and allergies, if any, with him to avoid any interaction or adverse effects on health. Any painkiller or even medicine for a cold could interact with this drug and lead to severe consequences. Carisoprodol withdrawal symptoms may also occur.

Carisoprodol is also best for neck muscle pain relief. Neck pain is a common problem now. Every third person complains about the intense neck pain. No age group is left untouched by this problem. There can be various causes for neck pain, like sitting for hours in front of the computer.  People working on computers at offices usually suffer from neck issues. Using an inappropriate pillow while sleeping or significant shock or injury can also be the reason for neck pain. Stress is an unavoidable part of the human lifestyle now, and it contributes significantly to various physical issues like neck pain in common. Such people can buy Carisoprodol. It is best for neck muscle pain relief.

 Possible side effects of taking Carisoprodol

Although it is an effective pain reducer and muscle relaxant, it has several side effects like other analgesics. It is strictly recommended to take this medicine as per the doctor’s advice only. This drug may cause physical dependence and lead to withdrawal symptoms. Do not take this medicine higher than prescribed .It may cause hazardous effects like breathing difficulty, altered blood pressure, coma, or death. Common side effects observed are:

  • Dizziness
  • headache
  • clumsiness
  • fast heart rate
  • upset stomach
  • vomiting
  • Skin rashes.
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Fatigue
  • Seizures
  • Blurred vision
  • Weakness
  • Drowsiness

Pregnant women must take this medicine as per doctors’ recommendations only. It may cause life-threatening situations for the fetes as well as the mother. It may lead to premature birth, mutations, coma, or even death. It does pass through breast milk also. Tell your doctor about other medications you were taking or any health supplements. Drugs like cough, cold, sleep, nausea, depression, etc., may also contain the amount of sedative. Its intake simultaneously with Carisoprodol may cause overdose, which may lead to severe consequences. It is strictly not advised to take alcohol along with this drug. It leads to harmful effects. Withdrawal symptoms like sudden mood or behavioural changes, breathing depression, seizures, agitation, anxiety, hallucinations, etc., may appear. They may last for a year or more.

Further details

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Brain-regions central nervous system

Central Nervous System Function

What is the Central Nervous System?

The central nervous system (CNS) is a substantial body part that consists of the brain and spinal cord. The skull (cranial cavity) protects the brain, and the spinal cord travels from the back part of the brain down to the center of the spine, stopping in the lumbar region of the lower back.

Meninges: It is a protective triple-layered membrane that houses both the brain and spinal cord. Sometimes we consider the retina, optic nerve, olfactory epithelium, and olfactory nerves to be a part of the CNS together with the brain and spinal cord.

Central Nervous System Function

The central nervous system has been a part of thorough studies for anatomists and physiologists, but it still has kept many secrets; it controls our thoughts, emotions, movements, and desires. The central nervous system controls our heart rate, breathing, body temperature, the release of some hormones, and much more.

Central Nervous System Composition

Here, we will discuss both primary parts of the central nervous system: the brain and the Spinal cord. The brain As we all know, it is the most complex organ of the human body; the cerebral cortex (the most considerable part by volume and the outermost part of the brain) contains around 15 to 33 million neurons, and each of the neurons are connected to thousands of other neurons. Approximately 100 billion neurons and a thousand billion glial (support) cells make up the human brain. Our brain uses about 20% of our body’s total energy.

The brain is the central control system of the body that coordinates activity, from physical motion to the creation of memories, the secretion of hormones, and the sensation of emotion. To carry out various functions, some brain sections have dedicated roles. However, many higher functions such as problem-saving, reasoning, and creativity involve different areas to work together in a fixed network.

The four roughly split lobes of the brain include:

  • Temporal lobe (green): is essential for processing sensory input and assigning emotional meaning to it. The temporal lobe is also helpful in laying down long-term memories, and some aspects of language perception also take place here.
  • Occipital lobe (purple)- It is the visual processing region of the brain that houses the visual cortex.
  • Parietal lobe (purple)– It integrates sensory information regarding touch, navigation, and spatial awareness. Touch stimulation beginning from the skin ultimately reaches the parietal lobe. This lobe also plays a role in language processing.
  • Frontal lobe (pink)– It is set at the front of the brain; the frontal lobe contains most dopamine-sensitive neurons and is involved in attention, short-term memory, reward, motivation, and planning.

Brain regions

  • Basal ganglia: It helps control voluntary muscle movements, procedure learning, and making decisions regarding which motor activities to carry out. Diseases that may affect this part of the brain include Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.
  • Cerebellum: It mainly deals with precise motor control, but also in attention and language perception. If the cerebellum is damaged, the primary symptom is ataxia, a condition concerning disrupted motor control.
  • Broca’s area: A small area on the left part of the brain (sometimes on the right side in left-handed individuals) plays a vital role in language processing. When damaged, a person finds it difficult to understand what is being said. Sometimes, stuttering is linked with underactive Broca’s area.
  • Corpus callosum: It is a broad structure of nerve fibers that joins the right and left hemispheres. The Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure present in the brain that allows the two hemispheres to communicate. Dyslexic children have a smaller corpus callosum size; ambidextrous people, left-handed people, and musicians have a typically larger one.
  • Medulla oblongata: extending below the skull, this part is involved in involuntary functions, such as breathing, sneezing, vomiting, and maintaining the appropriate blood pressure.

Hypothalamus is set up just above the brainstem and quite the size of an almond; this part of the brain secretes several neurohormones that impact body temperature control, hunger, and thirst.

  • Thalamus: It is positioned in the center part of the brain; the thalamus accepts sensory and motor input that relays it to the rest of the cerebral cortex. It helps regulate sleep, consciousness, alertness, and awareness.
  • Amygdala: It is two almond-shaped nuclei stored deep within the temporal lobe. This part is responsible for decision-making, emotional responses, and memory, specifically adverse effects.

Spinal cord

spinal cord

The spinal cord that runs almost the entire back length sinks the information between the brain and body and carries our other specific tasks. From the brainstem, where the brain and spinal cord meets, 31 spinal cords enter the cord. Its length connects with the peripheral nervous system (PNS) nerves that run in from the muscles, skin, and joints. Motor commands from the brain travel directly from the spine to the muscles. In contrast, the sensory information travels from the sensory tissues, including the skin, towards the spinal cord and eventually ends up in the brain

The spinal cord contains various circuits that control specific reflexive responses, including the involuntary movement of your arm made if your finger accidentally touches a flame. The circuits within the spine can also aid more complex movements such as walking. Even without any brain input, the spinal nerves can coordinate the muscles required to walk. For example, if the brain and spine are separated so that the brain has no contact with the body, it will begin spontaneously walking while placing it on the treadmill. The effective functioning of the brain is only to start and stop the process or make changes if an object appears in your path.

Central Nervous System (CNS) Diseases

The major causes of disorders or diseases that affect the CNS may include:

  • Trauma: Based upon the injury site, symptoms can range widely from paralysis to mood disorders.
  • Infections: Some viruses and microorganisms can invade the core of the central nervous system; these include protozoa; fungi, such as cryptococcal meningitis; viruses; malaria; bacteria, as in the case of leprosy.
  • Degeneration: In some rare cases, the brain and spinal cord can regenerate. Parkinson’s disease is one of the examples which involves the gradual disintegration of dopamine-producing cells present in the basal ganglia.
  • Structural defects: The most common example includes congenital disabilities, such as anencephaly, where parts of the brain, skull, and scalp are missing at birth.
  • Tumors: Both noncancerous and cancerous tumors can affect parts of the central nervous system. Both types of tumors can cause CNS damage and yield an array of symptoms depending upon the part of the body where it develops.
  • Autoimmune disorders: In some cases, an individual’s immune system can mount an attack on the healthy cells. For instance, the characteristics of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune response against the spinal cord and brain, attacking the nerves’ insulation (myelin) and destroying white matter of the brain.
  • Stroke: It is a blood supply interruption to the brain; the resulting oxygen deficiency causes tissue to die in the infected area.

How does alcohol affect the CNS and brain?

Alcohol addiction or overconsumption can affect several brain parts and, in general, contract brain tissues, destroy brain cells, and, most importantly, depress the central nervous system. Excessive drinking over a prolonged period can cause severe problems with cognition and memory. Alcohol is a depressant product that can slow down the significant functions of the CNS and cause mental confusion, slurred speech, poor muscle control, and blurry vision.

How to keep the nervous system healthy?

Just like other body parts, your brain also needs proper sleep for rest and repair, and primarily an excellent regular sleep cycle is the key. A healthy balanced diet that contains food rich in omega-3 fatty acids is also important. It can include fatty fish such as albacore tuna, salmon, herring, mackerel, and farmed trout.

Follow a regime to avoid stress as it can also affect the central nervous system. A few things you can do to keep your CNS healthy may include:

  • Allow yourself to take a break
  • Exercise regularly
  • Try spending time with family and friends
  • Practice mindfulness with yoga or meditate